Save time, stay current, and earn CE. You can rely on The Rx Consultant to deliver practical easy-reading updates on drugs & therapy for front-line pharmacists and nurses.

Multiple Sclerosis

CE for this article is no longer valid.

Clicking the "View this Article" button will open the issue as a resizable PDF. To take the test for the issue, return to this Introduction page and click the "Take the Test" button. The Introduction page will remain open after you open this issue. You may need to re-size or close the issue in order to see the Introduction page.


   Multiple sclerosis (MS), a chronic, inflammatory disease of the CNS, is not a rare condition. In the United States, MS ranks as the second most common cause of neurological disability and the leading cause of non-traumatic disability in young adults.

   Before the release of the first disease-modifying drug (interferon beta 1b Betaseron) in 1993, the available medications for MS targeted only the relief of symptoms such as urinary urgency. Today, a total of 6 disease modifying drugs (DMD) are available. These drugs reduce the frequency of relapse by about one third and are believed to slow disease progression. Unfortunately, DMDs do not cure MS and their impact on long-term disability remains to be seen. Current research suggests that neurological damage early in the course of MS results in long-term impairment. Consequently, many experts recommend early initiation of treatment with DMDs.

   This issue provides an overview of MS and an update on the drugs currently used to manage the disease, including those that may prevent or delay disease progression and medications that treat specific symptoms.

Publication Date: Jan-1-08
Expiration Date: Feb-1-11
CE Credit: 1.5 (0.15 CEU)
Type of activity: Knowledge-based

This program was developed by The Rx Consultant and published by Continuing Education Network, Inc. The Rx Consultant accepts no advertising or financial support from the pharmaceutical industry and is funded solely by the purchase of programs. The Rx Consultant is dedicated to providing unbiased, balanced information to health care practitioners.

Programs developed by The Rx Consultant are written by health care providers with expertise in the topic area, peer-reviewed, extensively edited, and fact-checked. This development process was created to insure that every program presents information that is current, accurate, relevant to "real world" health care providers, and written in an easy reading, "plain English" style.


Ellen Whipple Guthrie, Pharm.D., Assistant Clinical Professor, University of Georgia College of Pharmacy; Pediatric Pharmacist, Children's Healthcare of Atlanta; and Medical Advisor, Multiple Sclerosis Foundation. Dr. Guthrie has been directly working with MS patients for 8 years.

Disclosure Statement

Dr. Guthrie owns stock (< 200 shares) in Teva Pharmaceutical Industries, Ltd., a manufacturer of Novantrone®

Guest Editorial Advisor

Jacci Bainbridge, Pharm.D.

Target Audience

This accredited program is targeted to pharmacists and nurses.

Goals & Objectives

At the conclusion of this program, participants will be able to:

    • Describe the pathophysiology, suggestive symptoms, and general types of multiple sclerosis.
    • Discuss the approach to MS management, including the treatment of acute attacks, altering the natural course of the disease, and managing the symptomatic problems associated with MS.
    • Summarize the potential benefits and safety issues with the use of the interferon-ß products (Avonex®, Rebif®, Betaseron®) and glatiramer acetate (Copaxone®). Discuss the potentially serious side effects of natalizumab (Tysabri®) and mitoxantrone (Novantrone®).
    • Provide patients with injection technique advice for each DMD.

    Exam & Credit Statement procedures

    Upon successful completion of this program and the post test (70%), 1.5 hours of continuing education credit will be awarded. To receive credit and your exam score, please complete the exam questions and program evaluation.

    Editorial and Review Board

    Editor and CE Administrator

    Terry M. Baker, PharmD

    Associate Editor and CE Coordinator

    Tracy Farnen, PharmD

    Associate Editors

    James Chan, PharmD, PhD
    Pharmacy Quality and Outcomes Coordinator
    Kaiser Permanente
    Oakland, CA

    Associate Clinical Professor
    School of Pharmacy
    University of California San Francisco
    San Francisco, CA

    Ron Finley, RPh
    Department of Clinical Pharmacy
    University of California San Francisco
    San Francisco, CA

    Associate Member of the UCSF Memory and Aging Center
    Alzheimer's Research Center

    Consultant Pharmacist to the Institute on Aging-On Lok Senior Health
    Institute on Aging Alzheimer's Day Care Center

    Angie S. Graham, PharmD
    Drug Information Coordinator
    Stanford Hospital and Clinics
    Stanford University Medical Center
    Stanford, CA

    Julio R. Lopez, PharmD, FCSHP
    Chief of Pharmacy Service
    VA Northern California Health Care System

    Adjunct Clinical Professor
    College of Pharmacy
    Touro University
    Vallejo, CA

    Assistant Clinical Professor
    School of Pharmacy
    University of California, San Francisco
    San Francisco, CA

    Adjunct Professor
    Thomas J. Long School of Pharmacy
    University of the Pacific
    Stockton, CA

    Visiting Associate Professor and Lecturer
    Nursing School
    Samuel Merritt University
    Oakland, CA

    Pamela Mausner, MD

    Joshua J. Neumiller, PharmD, CDE, CGP, FASCP
    Assistant Professor
    Department of Pharmacotherapy
    College of Pharmacy
    Washington State University
    Elder Services of Spokane
    Spokane, WA

    Candy Tsourounis, PharmD
    Professor of Clinical Pharmacy
    Medication Outcomes Center
    Department of Clinical Pharmacy
    School of Pharmacy
    University of California, San Francisco
    San Francisco, CA

    Senior Editorial Advisor

    Gerard Hatheway, PharmD, PhD

    Editorial Advisors

    Jocelyn Chan, PharmD
    Belinda M. Danielson, RPh
    Christopher M. DeSoto, PharmD
    Cynthia Chan Huang, PharmD, MBA
    Fred Plageman, PharmD

    Editorial Advisor and Clinical Practice Consultant for Nurse Practitioners

    Emily K. Meuleman, RN, C, MS

    CE for this article is no longer valid.

    Accreditation Statements

    The Rx Consultant is a publication of Continuing Education Network, Inc.

    Continuing Education Network, Inc. is accredited by the Accreditation Council for Pharmacy Education as a provider of continuing pharmacy education.
    Continuing Education Network is approved by the California Board of Registered Nursing, Provider Number CEP 13118. Programs approved by CA BRN are accepted by most State Boards of Nursing.

    About the Rx Consultant

    The Rx Consultant is a monthly publication dedicated to providing health care professionals with the information they need to educate patients about drugs and manage drug therapy. The reader is responsible for confirming the information presented here and interpreting it in relation to each patient's specific situation before utilizing the information.

    Contact Us

    Exam Processing Inquiries

    The Rx Consultant

    Educational Content Inquiries

    The Rx Consultant

    CE for this article is no longer valid.