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Acute Otitis Media

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Overview

   Acute otitis media (AOM), characterized by the rapid onset of symptoms like ear pain and fever, is one of the most frequent childhood illnesses. It is the most common diagnosis leading to an antibiotic prescription in the U.S., in fact, AOM accounts for one-half of all antibiotic use in children.

   The controversy over the use of antibiotics for AOM has been ongoing for many years. Most children will recover without antibiotics, and national experts recommend "watchful waiting" as the first step in management for many children. Despite this endorsement, watchful waiting is used in only 15% of AOM cases, with physicians citing parental reluctance as the number one barrier to use.

   This issue outlines the current management recommendations for AOM, including watchful waiting, antibiotic therapy, and symptomatic treatment. Antibiotic options for penicillin-allergic children and those who fail first-line therapy are included. Preventive measures you can recommend to parents, including risk factors worth avoiding and immunizations that reduce risk, are detailed in the Rx Patient Connection insert.

Details

Publication Date: 02/01/2008
Expiration Date: 03/01/2011
CE Credit: 1.5 (0.15 CEU)
Type of Activity: Knowledge-based

This program was developed by The Rx Consultant and published by Continuing Education Network, Inc. The Rx Consultant accepts no advertising or financial support from the pharmaceutical industry and is funded solely by the purchase of programs. The Rx Consultant is dedicated to providing unbiased, balanced information to health care practitioners.

Programs developed by The Rx Consultant are written by health care providers with expertise in the topic area, peer-reviewed, extensively edited, and fact-checked. This development process was created to insure that every program presents information that is current, accurate, relevant to "real world" health care providers, and written in an easy reading, "plain English" style.

Authors

Jennifer Le, Pharm.D., BCPS, Infectious Diseases (including Pediatric and Adult) Pharmacist; Assistant Professor of Pharmacy Practice and Administration, Western University of Health Sciences, College of Pharmacy, Pomona, CA; in affiliation with Miller Children's Hospital and Long Beach Memorial Medical Center, Long Beach, CA.

Disclosure Statement

Dr. Le has served as a consultant and speaker for and has received research funding from Pfizer, Inc. Vantin® (cefpodoxime) is distributed by the Pharmacia & Upjohn Co. division of Pfizer, Inc. Zithromax® (azithromycin) is distributed by the Pfizer Labs division of Pfizer, Inc.

Guest Editorial Advisor

Cynthia Chan Huang, Pharm.D.

Target Audience

This accredited program is targeted to pharmacists and nurses.

Goals & Objectives

At the conclusion of this program, participants will be able to:

    1. Describe the risk factors for acute otitis media (AOM) and the parameters used for diagnosis.
    2. Summarize the current management recommendations for AOM. Include the role of immunizations and the option of initial observation versus initial treatment with antibiotics.
    3. Individualize antibiotic treatment options for AOM based on bacterial resistance, severity of illness and penicillin allergy.
    4. Discuss usual doses, common side effects and appropriate administration of the antibiotics commonly used for treatment of AOM.

Accreditation Statements

The Rx Consultant is a publication of Continuing Education Network, Inc. Continuing Education Network, Inc. is accredited by the Accreditation Council for Pharmacy Education as a provider of continuing pharmacy education as a provider of continuing pharmacy education.

Continuing Education Network is approved by the California Board of Registered Nursing, Provider Number CEP 13118. Programs approved by CA BRN are accepted by most State Boards of Nursing.

Exam & Credit Statement Procedures

Upon successful completion of this program and the post test (70%), 1.5 hours of continuing education credit will be awarded. To receive credit and your exam score, please complete the exam questions and program evaluation.

Editorial and Review Board

Editor and CE Administrator

Terry M. Baker, PharmD

Associate Editor and CE Coordinator

Tracy Farnen, PharmD

Associate Editors

James Chan, PharmD, PhD
Pharmacy Quality and Outcomes Coordinator
Kaiser Permanente
Oakland, CA

Associate Clinical Professor
School of Pharmacy
University of California San Francisco
San Francisco, CA

Ron Finley, RPh
Lecturer
Department of Clinical Pharmacy
University of California San Francisco
San Francisco, CA

Associate Member of the UCSF Memory and Aging Center
Alzheimer's Research Center

Consultant Pharmacist to the Institute on Aging-On Lok Senior Health
Institute on Aging Alzheimer's Day Care Center

Angie S. Graham, PharmD
Drug Information Coordinator
Stanford Hospital and Clinics
Stanford University Medical Center
Stanford, CA

Julio R. Lopez, PharmD, FCSHP
Chief of Pharmacy Service
VA Northern California Health Care System

Adjunct Clinical Professor
College of Pharmacy
Touro University
Vallejo, CA

Assistant Clinical Professor
School of Pharmacy
University of California, San Francisco
San Francisco, CA

Adjunct Professor
Thomas J. Long School of Pharmacy
University of the Pacific
Stockton, CA

Visiting Associate Professor and Lecturer
Nursing School
Samuel Merritt University
Oakland, CA

Pamela Mausner, MD

Joshua J. Neumiller, PharmD, CDE, CGP, FASCP
Assistant Professor
Department of Pharmacotherapy
College of Pharmacy
Washington State University
And
Elder Services of Spokane
Spokane, WA

Candy Tsourounis, PharmD
Professor of Clinical Pharmacy
Medication Outcomes Center
Department of Clinical Pharmacy
School of Pharmacy
University of California, San Francisco
San Francisco, CA

Senior Editorial Advisor

Gerard Hatheway, PharmD, PhD

Editorial Advisors

Jocelyn Chan, PharmD
Belinda M. Danielson, RPh
Christopher M. DeSoto, PharmD
Cynthia Chan Huang, PharmD, MBA
Fred Plageman, PharmD


Editorial Advisor and Clinical Practice Consultant for Nurse Practitioners

Emily K. Meuleman, RN, C, MS

About the Rx Consultant

The Rx Consultant is a monthly publication dedicated to providing health care professionals with the information they need to educate patients about drugs and manage drug therapy. The reader is responsible for confirming the information presented here and interpreting it in relation to each patient's specific situation before utilizing the information.

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