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Medical Marijuana

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Overview

Marijuana has been used for thousands of years for medical conditions, as well as for recreational purposes. The terms “marijuana” and “cannabis” are used interchangeably; however, cannabis is the more contemporary clinical designation. The use of marijuana has increased recently among US adults (18 years and older), from 10% in 2002 to 13% in 2014. The rise in marijuana use coincides with a declining perception of risk linked with its use, and its use is more prevalent in states with permissive medical marijuana laws. As of November 2016, 28 states and the District of Columbia have legalized medical marijuana, and 16 states have laws permitting the use of cannabidiol (CBD; a nonpsychoactive constituent of cannabis) for medical purposes. Seven states (Alaska, California, Colorado, Massachusetts, Nevada, Oregon, and Washington) and the District of Columbia have legalized both medical and recreational cannabis use.

In 2014, over 110,000 people in Colorado (2% of the population) were registered as medical marijuana users for conditions such as cancer, pain, glaucoma, or cachexia. As many as 2.6 million people are registered medical marijuana users nationwide. The legalization of medical marijuana in many states has occurred despite the fact that the FDA has yet to approve plant-based marijuana for any medical condition. The FDA has approved 2 synthetic cannabinoids, dronabinol (synthetic THC) and nabilone, for management of nausea and vomiting associated with cancer chemotherapy. Dronabinol is also approved for appetite stimulation in patients with wasting due to acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS)...

Details

Publication Date: 12/23/2016
Expiration Date: 12/23/2019
CE Credit: 1.5 (0.15 CEU)
Type of Activity: Knowledge-based

This program was developed by The Rx Consultant and published by Continuing Education Network, Inc. The Rx Consultant accepts no advertising or financial support from the pharmaceutical industry and is funded solely by the purchase of programs. The Rx Consultant is dedicated to providing unbiased, balanced information to health care practitioners.

Programs developed by The Rx Consultant are written by health care providers with expertise in the topic area, peer-reviewed, extensively edited, and fact-checked. This development process was created to insure that every program presents information that is current, accurate, relevant to "real world" health care providers, and written in an easy reading, "plain English" style.

Authors

Kari Franson, Pharm.D., Ph.D, BCPP is the Associate Dean for Professional Education, Department of Clinical Pharmacy at Skaggs School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Colorado. She has guided national and international professional, legislative, media and commercial groups on the wise study and use of cannabis.

Disclosure Statement

Dr. Franson reports no financial relationship with the manufacturer(s) or provider(s) of any commercial product(s) or service(s) that appear in this issue.

Target Audience

This accredited program is targeted to pharmacists and nurses.

Goals & Objectives

At the conclusion of this program, participants will be able to:

    1. Identify the main active constituents of cannabis and the physiologic processes that these may affect.
    2. List common conditions for which medical marijuana is used and the current supporting evidence (if any).
    3. Describe the acute effects and long-term risk of cannabis, and its effect on the reward pathway of the brain.
    4. Review various dosing methods for medical marijuana and the pharmacokinetic differences among them.

Accreditation Statements

The Rx Consultant is a publication of Continuing Education Network, Inc.

Continuing Education Network, Inc. is accredited by the Accreditation Council for Pharmacy Education as a provider of continuing pharmacy education as a provider of continuing pharmacy education.

Continuing Education Network is approved by the California Board of Registered Nursing, Provider Number CEP 13118. Programs approved by CA BRN are accepted by most State Boards of Nursing.

ACPE Universal Activity Number: 0428-0000-16-011-H01-P


Exam & Credit Statement Procedures

Upon successful completion of this program and the post test (70%), 1.5 hours of continuing education credit will be awarded. To receive credit and your exam score, please complete the exam questions and program evaluation.

Editorial and Review Board

Chief Editor and CE Administrator


Terry M. Baker, PharmD

Managing Editor


Tracy Farnen, PharmD

Associate Editors


James Chan, PharmD, PhD
Pharmacy Quality and Outcomes Coordinator
Kaiser Permanente
Oakland, CA

Associate Clinical Professor
School of Pharmacy
University of California San Francisco
San Francisco, CA

Richard Ron Finley, B.S. Pharm.,R.Ph.
Clinical Pharmacist (volunteer faculty)
University of California, San Francisco (UCSF) Memory and Aging Center
Lecturer (Emeritus) UCSF, Department of Clinical Pharmacy
Health Sciences Clinical Professor, UCSF School of Pharmacy
San Francisco, CA

Consultant Pharmacist
Ray Dolby Brain Health Center, Sutter Health/CPMC
San Francisco, CA

Consult Pharmacist Aging and Adult Health Services
San Francisco Health Department
San Francisco, CA

Julio R. Lopez, PharmD, FCSHP
Chief of Pharmacy Service
VA Northern California Health Care System

Adjunct Clinical Professor
College of Pharmacy
Touro University
Vallejo, CA

Assistant Clinical Professor
School of Pharmacy
University of California, San Francisco
San Francisco, CA Adjunct Professor
Thomas J. Long School of Pharmacy
University of the Pacific
Stockton, CA

Visiting Associate Professor and Lecturer
Nursing School
Samuel Merritt University
Oakland, CA

Pamela Mausner, MD

Helen Berlie, Pharm.D. CDE, BCACP
Clinical Assistant Professor, Pharmacy Practice
Wayne State University
Detroit, MI

Ambulatory Care Specialist - Diabetes
Health Centers Detroit Medical Group
Detroit, MI

Senior Editorial Advisor


Gerard Hatheway, PharmD, PhD

Editorial Advisors


Belinda M. Danielson, RPh
Christopher M. DeSoto, PharmD
Angie S. Graham, PharmD
Cynthia Chan Huang, PharmD, MBA
Fred Plageman, PharmD

Editorial Advisor and Clinical Practice Consultant for Nurse Practitioners


Emily K.
Meuleman, RN, C, MS

About the Rx Consultant

The Rx Consultant is a monthly publication dedicated to providing health care professionals with the information they need to educate patients about drugs and manage drug therapy. The reader is responsible for confirming the information presented here and interpreting it in relation to each patient's specific situation before utilizing the information.

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