CE for this article is no longer valid.
Non Subscriber: Buy This Issue

Diabetes Update

Clicking the "View this Article" button will open the issue as a resizable PDF. To take the test for the issue, return to this Introduction page and click the "Take the Test" button. The Introduction page will remain open after you open this issue.
You may need to re-size or close the issue in order to see the Introduction page.

Overview

The prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM) in U.S. adults nearly doubled between 1995 and 2010, increasing from 4.5% to 8.2%. While researchers note that this dramatic increase is partly accounted for by people living longer with diabetes, the high prevalence is a significant public health issue. An estimated 11% of adults aged 20 years or older have diabetes. Among those aged 65 years or older, the prevalence is much higher – an estimated 27%. Perhaps most alarming is the rise among U.S. adolescents: the prevalence of prediabetes and diabetes in the 12 - 19 year age group increased from 9% in 1999 to 23% in 2008. A boom in diabetes research over the last decade has generated new insights and considerations in diabetes management.

The number of available medications with different mechanisms of action, while welcome, has complicated treatment choices. And more medications are sure to follow – a 2012 pharmaceutical manufacturer report listed 221 drugs in the pipeline for diabetes and diabetes-related conditions. This issue will discuss recent developments in diabetes, including significant changes in adult practice guidelines, the establishment of pediatric guidelines, and medication updates: angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) for the management of diabetic kidney disease, a new DPP-4 inhibitor (alogliptin), a first-in-class sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitor (canagliflozin [Invokana™]), and an investigational, ultra-long-acting insulin.

Details

Publication Date: 04/18/2013
Expiration Date: 04/18/2016
CE Credit: 1.5 (0.15 CEU)
Type of Activity: Knowledge-based

This program was developed by The Rx Consultant and published by Continuing Education Network, Inc. The Rx Consultant accepts no advertising or financial support from the pharmaceutical industry and is funded solely by the purchase of programs. The Rx Consultant is dedicated to providing unbiased, balanced information to health care practitioners.

Programs developed by The Rx Consultant are written by health care providers with expertise in the topic area, peer-reviewed, extensively edited, and fact-checked. This development process was created to insure that every program presents information that is current, accurate, relevant to "real world" health care providers, and written in an easy reading, "plain English" style.

Authors

Pamela Mausner, MD, and Tracy Farnen, Pharm.D.

Disclosure Statement

Dr. Farnen and Dr. Mausner report no financial or personal relationship with any commercial interest producing, marketing, reselling, or distributing a product or service that appears in this issue.

Target Audience

This accredited program is targeted to pharmacists and nurses.

Goals & Objectives

At the conclusion of this program, participants will be able to:

    1. Outline the current American Diabetes Association recommendations for blood pressure goals and self-monitoring of blood glucose. Discuss current recommendations for patient-centered glycemic goals and therapy selection in type 2 diabetes.
    2. Review the National Kidney Foundation’s current guidelines on ACE inhibitor and ARB use in diabetic kidney disease.
    3. Discuss the increasing prevalence of type 2 diabetes in children and adolescents, and the recommended treatment approach.
    4. Identify the differences between alogliptin and other FDA approved DPP-4 inhibitors. Discuss the potential benefits and adverse effects of canagliflozin.

Accreditation Statements

The Rx Consultant is a publication of Continuing Education Network, Inc.

Continuing Education Network, Inc. is accredited by the Accreditation Council for Pharmacy Education as a provider of continuing pharmacy education as a provider of continuing pharmacy education.

Continuing Education Network is approved by the California Board of Registered Nursing, Provider Number CEP 13118. Programs approved by CA BRN are accepted by most State Boards of Nursing.

ACPE Universal Activity Number: 0428-0000-13-005-H01-P


Exam & Credit Statement Procedures

Upon successful completion of this program and the post test (70%), 1.5 hours of continuing education credit will be awarded. To receive credit and your exam score, please complete the exam questions and program evaluation.

Editorial and Review Board

Chief Editor and CE Administrator


Terry M. Baker, PharmD

Managing Editor


Tracy Farnen, PharmD

Associate Editors


James Chan, PharmD, PhD
Pharmacy Quality and Outcomes Coordinator
Kaiser Permanente
Oakland, CA

Associate Clinical Professor
School of Pharmacy
University of California San Francisco
San Francisco, CA

Richard Ron Finley, B.S. Pharm.,R.Ph.
Clinical Pharmacist (volunteer faculty)
University of California, San Francisco (UCSF) Memory and Aging Center
Lecturer (Emeritus) UCSF, Department of Clinical Pharmacy
Health Sciences Clinical Professor, UCSF School of Pharmacy
San Francisco, CA

Consultant Pharmacist
Ray Dolby Brain Health Center, Sutter Health/CPMC
San Francisco, CA

Consult Pharmacist Aging and Adult Health Services
San Francisco Health Department
San Francisco, CA

Julio R. Lopez, PharmD, FCSHP
Chief of Pharmacy Service
VA Northern California Health Care System

Adjunct Clinical Professor
College of Pharmacy
Touro University
Vallejo, CA

Assistant Clinical Professor
School of Pharmacy
University of California, San Francisco
San Francisco, CA Adjunct Professor
Thomas J. Long School of Pharmacy
University of the Pacific
Stockton, CA

Visiting Associate Professor and Lecturer
Nursing School
Samuel Merritt University
Oakland, CA

Pamela Mausner, MD

Helen Berlie, Pharm.D. CDE, BCACP
Clinical Assistant Professor, Pharmacy Practice
Wayne State University
Detroit, MI

Ambulatory Care Specialist - Diabetes
Health Centers Detroit Medical Group
Detroit, MI

Senior Editorial Advisor


Gerard Hatheway, PharmD, PhD

Editorial Advisors


Belinda M. Danielson, RPh
Christopher M. DeSoto, PharmD
Angie S. Graham, PharmD
Cynthia Chan Huang, PharmD, MBA
Fred Plageman, PharmD

Editorial Advisor and Clinical Practice Consultant for Nurse Practitioners


Emily K.
Meuleman, RN, C, MS

About the Rx Consultant

The Rx Consultant is a monthly publication dedicated to providing health care professionals with the information they need to educate patients about drugs and manage drug therapy. The reader is responsible for confirming the information presented here and interpreting it in relation to each patient's specific situation before utilizing the information.

Technical Specifications

Hardware requirements

Any hardware that supports Microsoft Windows, Apple Mac OS, iOS, or Android, and meets the software requirements.

Software requirements

Browser that supports TLS 1.1 + and PDF files.

This includes Microsoft Internet Explorer 11, Google Chrome 38, Google Android OS 5.0 Browser, Apple Safari (version 7 for desktop, 5 for mobile), Mozilla Firefox 27, newer versions of these browsers, as well as some earlier versions that may require additional configuration.

Adobe Acrobat Reader is recommended, and is required for some browsers.

Note: TLS 1.1 and 1.2 support is required for browser security. Click here for TLS browser support details.

Internet Connectivity

Required. Broadband recommended. (T1, DSL, Cable, G4 or higher.)

Contact Us

Exam Processing Inquiries

The Rx Consultant
rxmail@rxconsultant.com
1-800-798-3353

Educational Content Inquiries

The Rx Consultant
editor@rxconsultant.com
1-800-798-3353

CE for this article is no longer valid.
Non Subscriber: Buy This Issue