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Diabetes Update: Beyond Glycemic Management

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In 2021, insulin will celebrate its 100th anniversary. Yet a century after the discovery of insulin, the US is experiencing an escalation in the number of diabetes cases. In 2020, the Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) reported that 34.2 million Americans (11% of the US population) have diabetes and 88 million American adults (35% of the US adult population) have prediabetes. New diabetes cases were higher among non-Hispanic blacks and people of Hispanic origin. Additionally, racial and ethnic minorities continue to develop type 2 diabetes at higher rates. The occurrence of diagnosed diabetes was highest among American Indians and Alaska Natives (14.7%), followed by people of Hispanic origin (12.5%), non-Hispanic blacks (11.7%), non-Hispanic Asians (9.2%) and non-Hispanic whites (7.5%). Coupled with the rising prevalence of diabetes is the obesity epidemic. Obesity is defined as a body mass index (BMI) greater than or equal to 30 kg/m; severe obesity is a BMI greater than or equal to 40 kg/m2. In 2017–2018, 42% of adults in the US were considered obese. By age group, the incidence was 40% for 20 - 39 year old adults; nearly 45% for 40 - 59 year old adults; and nearly 43% among adults 60 years and older. Both obesity and severe obesity were highest in non-Hispanic black adults and higher among women than men.


Publication Date: 05/23/2021
Expiration Date: 05/23/2024
CE Credit: 1.5 (0.15 CEU)
Type of Activity: Knowledge-based

This program was developed by The Rx Consultant and published by Continuing Education Network, Inc. The Rx Consultant accepts no advertising or financial support from the pharmaceutical industry and is funded solely by the purchase of programs. The Rx Consultant is dedicated to providing unbiased, balanced information to health care practitioners.

Programs developed by The Rx Consultant are written by health care providers with expertise in the topic area, peer-reviewed, extensively edited, and fact-checked. This development process was created to insure that every program presents information that is current, accurate, relevant to "real world" health care providers, and written in an easy reading, "plain English" style.


Dr. Susan Cornell, PharmD,CDCES,FAPhA, FADCES is Associate Director of Experiential Education and Associate Professor, Midwestern University College of Pharmacy Downers Grove in Downers Grove,IL. She is also a diabetes care and education provider at the Bolingbrook Christian Health Clinic in Bolingbrook, IL.

Dr. Brian T. Cryder,PharmD, CACP, BCACP is Associate Professor in the Department of Pharmacy Practice, Midwestern University College of Pharmacy Downers Grove, in Downers Grove,IL. He is also an Ambulatory Care Clinical Pharmacist with Advocate Medical Group in Chicago, IL.

Disclosure Statement

Dr.Cornell, and Dr. Cryder reports no financial relationship with the manufacturer(s) or provider(s) of any commercial product(s) or service(s) that appear in this issue.

Target Audience

This accredited program is targeted to pharmacists .

Goals & Objectives

At the conclusion of this program, participants will be able to:

    1. Summarize recent changes in the American Diabetes Association recommendations for managing type 2 diabetes.
    2. Describe recommendations for selecting diabetes medications to reduce cardiovascular events, heart failure risk, weight, and/or chronic kidney disease risk in patients with type 2 diabetes.
    3. Discuss contraindications and side effect considerations for SGLT2 inhibitors and GLP-1 agonists.
    4. Explain the role of diabetes self management and support; describe how continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) works and who may be a candidate for CGM.

Accreditation Statements

The Rx Consultant is a publication of Continuing Education Network, Inc.

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Continuing Education Network, Inc. is accredited by the Accreditation Council for Pharmacy Education as a provider of continuing pharmacy education as a provider of continuing pharmacy education.

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Continuing Education Network is approved by the California Board of Registered Nursing, Provider Number CEP 13118. Programs approved by CA BRN are accepted by most State Boards of Nursing.

ACPE Universal Activity Number: 0428-0000-21-006-H01-P

Exam & Credit Statement Procedures

Upon successful completion of this program and the post test (70%), 1.5 hours of continuing education credit will be awarded. To receive credit and your exam score, please complete the exam questions and program evaluation.

Editorial and Review Board

Chief Editor and CE Administrator

Terry M. Baker, PharmD

Managing Editor

Tracy Farnen, PharmD

Associate Editors

James Chan, PharmD, PhD
Pharmacy Quality and Outcomes Coordinator
Kaiser Permanente
Oakland, CA

Associate Clinical Professor
School of Pharmacy
University of California San Francisco
San Francisco, CA

Richard Ron Finley, B.S. Pharm.,R.Ph.
Clinical Pharmacist (volunteer faculty)
University of California, San Francisco (UCSF) Memory and Aging Center
Lecturer (Emeritus) UCSF, Department of Clinical Pharmacy
Health Sciences Clinical Professor, UCSF School of Pharmacy
San Francisco, CA

Consultant Pharmacist
Ray Dolby Brain Health Center, Sutter Health/CPMC
San Francisco, CA

Consult Pharmacist Aging and Adult Health Services
San Francisco Health Department
San Francisco, CA

Julio R. Lopez, PharmD, FCSHP
Chief of Pharmacy Service
VA Northern California Health Care System

Adjunct Clinical Professor
College of Pharmacy
Touro University
Vallejo, CA

Assistant Clinical Professor
School of Pharmacy
University of California, San Francisco
San Francisco, CA Adjunct Professor
Thomas J. Long School of Pharmacy
University of the Pacific
Stockton, CA

Visiting Associate Professor and Lecturer
Nursing School
Samuel Merritt University
Oakland, CA

Pamela Mausner, MD

Helen Berlie, Pharm.D. CDE, BCACP
Clinical Assistant Professor, Pharmacy Practice
Wayne State University
Detroit, MI

Ambulatory Care Specialist - Diabetes
Health Centers Detroit Medical Group
Detroit, MI

Senior Editorial Advisor

Gerard Hatheway, PharmD, PhD

Editorial Advisors

Belinda M. Danielson, RPh
Christopher M. DeSoto, PharmD
Angie S. Graham, PharmD
Cynthia Chan Huang, PharmD, MBA
Fred Plageman, PharmD

Editorial Advisor and Clinical Practice Consultant for Nurse Practitioners

Emily K.
Meuleman, RN, C, MS

About the Rx Consultant

The Rx Consultant is a monthly publication dedicated to providing health care professionals with the information they need to educate patients about drugs and manage drug therapy. The reader is responsible for confirming the information presented here and interpreting it in relation to each patient's specific situation before utilizing the information.

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