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Dry Eye Disease

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Overview

Dry eye disease (DED) is a chronic, progressive, inflammatory disease of the ocular surface and lacrimal glands. The American Academy of Ophthalmology describes DED as inadequate moisture in the eyes due to changes in tear film consistency and the type of tears produced (leading to evaporative loss), with or without decreased tear production. The disease is also known as keratoconjunctivitis sicca, ocular surface disease, and dry eye syndrome. Nearly 12 million people in the US are coping with dry eye symptoms on a daily basis. The prevalence of DED among adults in the US is approximately 14%. The disease occurs twice as often in women, and increases in prevalence with age (3% at 35 years and nearly 19% at 75 years or older).

Many factors contribute to DED. It has been linked with various autoimmune diseases (eg, Sjogren’s syndrome, lupus, rheumatoid arthritis), diabetes, and thyroid disorders. DED has also been associated with blepharitis and rosacea. In addition, eyelids that are turned in (entropion) or out (ectropion) can result in DED. Postmenopausal women are at high risk for DED – most likely due to hormonal changes resulting in a reduced ophthalmic antiinflammatory response and decreased lacrimal secretions.

Dry eye disease takes its toll on patients economically and on their quality of life. Symptoms range from stinging, irritation, ocular fatigue, to variations in visual acuity. These can occur for extended periods of time and significantly impact a person’s daily activities. In a 2016 report on the humanistic and economic impact of DED in the US, the annual direct cost for managing the disease was estimated at $3.8 billion dollars....

Details

Publication Date: 02/22/2019
Expiration Date: 02/22/2022
CE Credit: 1.5 (0.15 CEU)
Type of Activity: Knowledge-based

This program was developed by The Rx Consultant and published by Continuing Education Network, Inc. The Rx Consultant accepts no advertising or financial support from the pharmaceutical industry and is funded solely by the purchase of programs. The Rx Consultant is dedicated to providing unbiased, balanced information to health care practitioners.

Programs developed by The Rx Consultant are written by health care providers with expertise in the topic area, peer-reviewed, extensively edited, and fact-checked. This development process was created to insure that every program presents information that is current, accurate, relevant to "real world" health care providers, and written in an easy reading, "plain English" style.

Authors

Celia P. MacDonnell, BS Pharmacy, PharmD is a Clinical Professor at the College of Pharmacy, University of Rhode Island. She is also an Adjunct Associate Professor of Family Medicine at the Alpert Medical School, Brown University. Her teaching, practice and research interests are in diseases of the eye and skin, and inter-professional education.

Disclosure Statement

Dr. MacDonnell reports no financial relationship with the manufacturer(s) or provider(s) of any commercial product(s) or service(s) that appear in this issue.

Target Audience

This accredited program is targeted to pharmacists .

Goals & Objectives

At the conclusion of this program, participants will be able to:

    1. Outline the cause(s) of dry eye disease and identify risk factors associated with its development.
    2. Be able to recognize dry eye disease symptoms and counsel a patient on self-care measures to improve symptoms.
    3. Discuss current treatment approaches for dry eye disease including goals of therapy and 4-step management.
    4. Describe the role of ocular lubricants and antiinflammatory agents in the management of dry eye disease, including their safety and administration. Discuss the role that topical and oral antibiotics may have in DED-related conditions.

Accreditation Statements

The Rx Consultant is a publication of Continuing Education Network, Inc.

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Continuing Education Network, Inc. is accredited by the Accreditation Council for Pharmacy Education as a provider of continuing pharmacy education as a provider of continuing pharmacy education.

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Continuing Education Network is approved by the California Board of Registered Nursing, Provider Number CEP 13118. Programs approved by CA BRN are accepted by most State Boards of Nursing.

ACPE Universal Activity Number: 0428-0000-19-004-H01-P


Exam & Credit Statement Procedures

Upon successful completion of this program and the post test (70%), 1.5 hours of continuing education credit will be awarded. To receive credit and your exam score, please complete the exam questions and program evaluation.

Editorial and Review Board

Chief Editor and CE Administrator


Terry M. Baker, PharmD

Managing Editor


Tracy Farnen, PharmD

Associate Editors


James Chan, PharmD, PhD
Pharmacy Quality and Outcomes Coordinator
Kaiser Permanente
Oakland, CA

Associate Clinical Professor
School of Pharmacy
University of California San Francisco
San Francisco, CA

Richard Ron Finley, B.S. Pharm.,R.Ph.
Clinical Pharmacist (volunteer faculty)
University of California, San Francisco (UCSF) Memory and Aging Center
Lecturer (Emeritus) UCSF, Department of Clinical Pharmacy
Health Sciences Clinical Professor, UCSF School of Pharmacy
San Francisco, CA

Consultant Pharmacist
Ray Dolby Brain Health Center, Sutter Health/CPMC
San Francisco, CA

Consult Pharmacist Aging and Adult Health Services
San Francisco Health Department
San Francisco, CA

Julio R. Lopez, PharmD, FCSHP
Chief of Pharmacy Service
VA Northern California Health Care System

Adjunct Clinical Professor
College of Pharmacy
Touro University
Vallejo, CA

Assistant Clinical Professor
School of Pharmacy
University of California, San Francisco
San Francisco, CA Adjunct Professor
Thomas J. Long School of Pharmacy
University of the Pacific
Stockton, CA

Visiting Associate Professor and Lecturer
Nursing School
Samuel Merritt University
Oakland, CA

Pamela Mausner, MD

Helen Berlie, Pharm.D. CDE, BCACP
Clinical Assistant Professor, Pharmacy Practice
Wayne State University
Detroit, MI

Ambulatory Care Specialist - Diabetes
Health Centers Detroit Medical Group
Detroit, MI

Senior Editorial Advisor


Gerard Hatheway, PharmD, PhD

Editorial Advisors


Belinda M. Danielson, RPh
Christopher M. DeSoto, PharmD
Angie S. Graham, PharmD
Cynthia Chan Huang, PharmD, MBA
Fred Plageman, PharmD

Editorial Advisor and Clinical Practice Consultant for Nurse Practitioners


Emily K.
Meuleman, RN, C, MS

About the Rx Consultant

The Rx Consultant is a monthly publication dedicated to providing health care professionals with the information they need to educate patients about drugs and manage drug therapy. The reader is responsible for confirming the information presented here and interpreting it in relation to each patient's specific situation before utilizing the information.

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