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HIV Infection: An Update on Antiretroviral Therapy

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Overview

Thirty seven years after the first case of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) was reported, 36.7 million people world-wide are living with HIV. About 1.8 million new HIV infections and 1 million AIDS-related deaths were reported in 2016. However, there has been significant progress in battling the disease over the last 20 years. Since 2001, the number of new cases decreased by 40% worldwide, and since 2005, AIDS-related deaths have declined by 56%. For the first time in the US, the number of new infections declined 18% between 2008 and 2014.

Due to the availability of potent and better-tolerated antiretroviral agents (ARVs) that prolong life, the number of people living with HIV has increased significantly since the late 1990s. About 1.1 million people in the US are currently living with HIV infection. People living with HIV now have a similar life expectancy as the general population. The 50 year old and older age group accounted for almost one-half (45%) of persons living with HIV infection in the US in 2014. However, complete viral suppression with ARV treatment does not fully restore health. Deaths due to non-AIDS related complications worldwide range from 13.8% (sub-Saharan countries) to 62.3% (high-income countries). These include cardiovascular, kidney, and liver diseases; cancers; and neurologic disorders often associated with aging...

Details

Publication Date: 01/20/2018
Expiration Date: 01/20/2021
CE Credit: 2.0 (0.20 CEU)
Type of Activity: Knowledge-based

This program was developed by The Rx Consultant and published by Continuing Education Network, Inc. The Rx Consultant accepts no advertising or financial support from the pharmaceutical industry and is funded solely by the purchase of programs. The Rx Consultant is dedicated to providing unbiased, balanced information to health care practitioners.

Programs developed by The Rx Consultant are written by health care providers with expertise in the topic area, peer-reviewed, extensively edited, and fact-checked. This development process was created to insure that every program presents information that is current, accurate, relevant to "real world" health care providers, and written in an easy reading, "plain English" style.

Authors

Elizabeth Sherman, PharmD, AAHIVP is an Assistant Professor at the College of Pharmacy, Nova Southeastern University (NSU), Fort Lauderdale, FL; and an HIV/AIDS clinical pharmacy specialist at the Memorial Healthcare System, Division of Infectious Disease, Hollywood, FL. She serves as an investigator for the Southeast AIDS Education and Training Center.

Betty Dong, PharmD, FCCP, FASHP, FAPHA, AAHIVP is a Professor of Clinical Pharmacy and Family & Community Medicine, University of California Schools of Pharmacy and Medicine, San Francisco, CA. She provides pharmacy care for patients with HIV and HCV infection and other chronic illnesses at the Family Medicine Clinic at San Francisco General Hospital and at the UCSF Liver Transplant Clinic. She is a consultant for the Clinicians' Consultation Center on treatment and prevention of HIV, HBV, and HCV infection.

Disclosure Statement

Dr. Sherman and Dr. Dong report no financial relationship with the manufacturer(s) or provider(s) of any commercial product(s) or service(s) that appear in this issue.

Target Audience

This accredited program is targeted to pharmacists and nurses.

Goals & Objectives

At the conclusion of this program, participants will be able to:

    1. List the antiretroviral regimens recommended for pre- and post-exposure prophylaxis, and describe their efficacy.
    2. Describe the current recommendations for starting antiretroviral therapy. Identify the recommended regimens for antiretroviral-naïve persons.
    3. Discuss the adverse effects and drug interactions of the most commonly used antiretroviral agents (ARVs) and classes.
    4. Advise patients about the administration of ARVs, monitoring parameters, and the importance of adherence.

Accreditation Statements

The Rx Consultant is a publication of Continuing Education Network, Inc.

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Continuing Education Network, Inc. is accredited by the Accreditation Council for Pharmacy Education as a provider of continuing pharmacy education as a provider of continuing pharmacy education.

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Continuing Education Network is approved by the California Board of Registered Nursing, Provider Number CEP 13118. Programs approved by CA BRN are accepted by most State Boards of Nursing.

ACPE Universal Activity Number: 0428-0000-18-001-H02-P


Exam & Credit Statement Procedures

Upon successful completion of this program and the post test (70%), 2.0 hours of continuing education credit will be awarded. To receive credit and your exam score, please complete the exam questions and program evaluation.

Editorial and Review Board

Chief Editor and CE Administrator


Terry M. Baker, PharmD

Managing Editor


Tracy Farnen, PharmD

Associate Editors


James Chan, PharmD, PhD
Pharmacy Quality and Outcomes Coordinator
Kaiser Permanente
Oakland, CA

Associate Clinical Professor
School of Pharmacy
University of California San Francisco
San Francisco, CA

Richard Ron Finley, B.S. Pharm.,R.Ph.
Clinical Pharmacist (volunteer faculty)
University of California, San Francisco (UCSF) Memory and Aging Center
Lecturer (Emeritus) UCSF, Department of Clinical Pharmacy
Health Sciences Clinical Professor, UCSF School of Pharmacy
San Francisco, CA

Consultant Pharmacist
Ray Dolby Brain Health Center, Sutter Health/CPMC
San Francisco, CA

Consult Pharmacist Aging and Adult Health Services
San Francisco Health Department
San Francisco, CA

Julio R. Lopez, PharmD, FCSHP
Chief of Pharmacy Service
VA Northern California Health Care System

Adjunct Clinical Professor
College of Pharmacy
Touro University
Vallejo, CA

Assistant Clinical Professor
School of Pharmacy
University of California, San Francisco
San Francisco, CA Adjunct Professor
Thomas J. Long School of Pharmacy
University of the Pacific
Stockton, CA

Visiting Associate Professor and Lecturer
Nursing School
Samuel Merritt University
Oakland, CA

Pamela Mausner, MD

Helen Berlie, Pharm.D. CDE, BCACP
Clinical Assistant Professor, Pharmacy Practice
Wayne State University
Detroit, MI

Ambulatory Care Specialist - Diabetes
Health Centers Detroit Medical Group
Detroit, MI

Senior Editorial Advisor


Gerard Hatheway, PharmD, PhD

Editorial Advisors


Belinda M. Danielson, RPh
Christopher M. DeSoto, PharmD
Angie S. Graham, PharmD
Cynthia Chan Huang, PharmD, MBA
Fred Plageman, PharmD

Editorial Advisor and Clinical Practice Consultant for Nurse Practitioners


Emily K.
Meuleman, RN, C, MS

About the Rx Consultant

The Rx Consultant is a monthly publication dedicated to providing health care professionals with the information they need to educate patients about drugs and manage drug therapy. The reader is responsible for confirming the information presented here and interpreting it in relation to each patient's specific situation before utilizing the information.

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