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Immunization Update: A Focus on Medical Indications for Vaccines in Adults

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Overview

The Healthy People 2020 report, published by the US Department of Health and Human Services, includes targets for reducing vaccine-preventable disease rates and increasing vaccination rates in all age groups. According to the report, for each birth cohort (group of individuals born in the same year), immunization with the routine childhood vaccination schedule prevents 14 million cases of disease and reduces direct healthcare costs by $9.9 billion. Vaccines are one of the most cost-effective clinical preventive services; however, thousands of people in the US do not receive them and suffer – even die – from vaccine preventable diseases. From 2010 through 2014, flu-related deaths in the US ranged from 12,000 to 56,000 per year. Pneumococcal pneumonia leads to about 19,000 deaths every year, and as many as 1.4 million people currently suffer from Hepatitis B, with liver cancer as a potential complication. There have been a number of recent measles and pertussis outbreaks in communities with pockets of unvaccinated and under-vaccinated children.

In order to meet the Healthy People 2020 targets, all healthcare providers should stay up-to-date on vaccine recommendations and play an active role in immunizations. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and its Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) update their recommendations for routine immunizations annually, while vaccine-specific recommendations are typically updated every 3-5 years (except influenza, which is updated yearly). Additionally, the CDC publishes the General Recommendations on Immunization and the Epidemiology and Prevention of Vaccine-Preventable Diseases (known as “The Pink Book”), which are considered core references for vaccine providers...

Details

Publication Date: 08/23/2017
Expiration Date: 08/23/2020
CE Credit: 2.0 (0.20 CEU)
Type of Activity: Knowledge-based

This program was developed by The Rx Consultant and published by Continuing Education Network, Inc. The Rx Consultant accepts no advertising or financial support from the pharmaceutical industry and is funded solely by the purchase of programs. The Rx Consultant is dedicated to providing unbiased, balanced information to health care practitioners.

Programs developed by The Rx Consultant are written by health care providers with expertise in the topic area, peer-reviewed, extensively edited, and fact-checked. This development process was created to insure that every program presents information that is current, accurate, relevant to "real world" health care providers, and written in an easy reading, "plain English" style.

Authors

Jelena Lewis, PharmD is an Assistant Professor of Pharmacy Practice at Chapman University School of Pharmacy. She is also a faculty-in-residence at St. Jude Heritage Medical Group where she provides chronic disease state management.

Jeff Goad, PharmD, MPH is Professor and Chair of the Department of Pharmacy Practice, Chapman University School of Pharmacy. He is a national faculty and advisory board member for the APhA Pharmacy Based Immunization Training Program and chair of the APhA Travel Medicine Advanced Competency Training Course.

Disclosure Statement

Dr. Lewis reports no financial relationship with the manufacturer(s) or provider(s) of any commercial product(s) or 1 service(s) that appear in this issue. Dr. Goad reports being on the speakers bureau for Merck & Co., Inc.

Target Audience

This accredited program is targeted to pharmacists and nurses.

Goals & Objectives

At the conclusion of this program, participants will be able to:

    1. Discuss vaccine-specific indications and contraindications for patients with altered immunocompetence (including HIV infection and asplenia).
    2. Discuss vaccine-specific indications and contraindications for patients with diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and chronic lung, liver, or kidney disease.
    3. Describe vaccine-specific recommendations for pregnant women, men who have sex with men, and for patients with egg allergy.

Accreditation Statements

The Rx Consultant is a publication of Continuing Education Network, Inc.

Continuing Education Network, Inc. is accredited by the Accreditation Council for Pharmacy Education as a provider of continuing pharmacy education as a provider of continuing pharmacy education.

Continuing Education Network is approved by the California Board of Registered Nursing, Provider Number CEP 13118. Programs approved by CA BRN are accepted by most State Boards of Nursing.

ACPE Universal Activity Number: 0428-0000-17-008-H06-P


Exam & Credit Statement Procedures

Upon successful completion of this program and the post test (70%), 2.0 hours of continuing education credit will be awarded. To receive credit and your exam score, please complete the exam questions and program evaluation.

Editorial and Review Board

Chief Editor and CE Administrator


Terry M. Baker, PharmD

Managing Editor


Tracy Farnen, PharmD

Associate Editors


James Chan, PharmD, PhD
Pharmacy Quality and Outcomes Coordinator
Kaiser Permanente
Oakland, CA

Associate Clinical Professor
School of Pharmacy
University of California San Francisco
San Francisco, CA

Richard Ron Finley, B.S. Pharm.,R.Ph.
Clinical Pharmacist (volunteer faculty)
University of California, San Francisco (UCSF) Memory and Aging Center
Lecturer (Emeritus) UCSF, Department of Clinical Pharmacy
Health Sciences Clinical Professor, UCSF School of Pharmacy
San Francisco, CA

Consultant Pharmacist
Ray Dolby Brain Health Center, Sutter Health/CPMC
San Francisco, CA

Consult Pharmacist Aging and Adult Health Services
San Francisco Health Department
San Francisco, CA

Julio R. Lopez, PharmD, FCSHP
Chief of Pharmacy Service
VA Northern California Health Care System

Adjunct Clinical Professor
College of Pharmacy
Touro University
Vallejo, CA

Assistant Clinical Professor
School of Pharmacy
University of California, San Francisco
San Francisco, CA Adjunct Professor
Thomas J. Long School of Pharmacy
University of the Pacific
Stockton, CA

Visiting Associate Professor and Lecturer
Nursing School
Samuel Merritt University
Oakland, CA

Pamela Mausner, MD

Helen Berlie, Pharm.D. CDE, BCACP
Clinical Assistant Professor, Pharmacy Practice
Wayne State University
Detroit, MI

Ambulatory Care Specialist - Diabetes
Health Centers Detroit Medical Group
Detroit, MI

Senior Editorial Advisor


Gerard Hatheway, PharmD, PhD

Editorial Advisors


Belinda M. Danielson, RPh
Christopher M. DeSoto, PharmD
Angie S. Graham, PharmD
Cynthia Chan Huang, PharmD, MBA
Fred Plageman, PharmD

Editorial Advisor and Clinical Practice Consultant for Nurse Practitioners


Emily K.
Meuleman, RN, C, MS

About the Rx Consultant

The Rx Consultant is a monthly publication dedicated to providing health care professionals with the information they need to educate patients about drugs and manage drug therapy. The reader is responsible for confirming the information presented here and interpreting it in relation to each patient's specific situation before utilizing the information.

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