Probiotic Use in Children
Clicking the "View this Article" button will open the issue as a resizable PDF. To take the test for
the issue, return to this Introduction page and click the "Take the Test" button. The Introduction
page will remain open after you open this issue.
You may need to re-size or close the issue in order
to see the Introduction page.
A flood of probiotic products has hit the market, and consumer interest in the potential health benefits of “good bacteria” is growing rapidly. Over the 12-month period from 2010 to 2011, sales of probiotic-containing foods grew by over 30% in the U.S., with consumer spending on foods and supplements reaching nearly $1.2 billion. As early as 2007, “prebiotics or probiotics” were ranked the fifth most frequently used nonvitamin, nonmineral, natural product in children. The number of human studies of probiotics has quadrupled since 2000, with a wide range of potential therapeutic and preventive uses – including gastrointestinal (GI) disorders, allergy, and infections – being evaluated.
Probiotics are available in the U.S. as dietary supplements (including capsules, tablets, powders) and in infant formulas and dairy foods such as yogurt. Selected products are detailed on page 4. Despite increased awareness of probiotics, many consumers are confused about what they contain, what effects they have on the body, which strains or products are the best choices, and how to use them. Consumers may not be aware that, despite the growth in research, there is not yet strong scientific evidence to support many of the health claims for probiotics.
This issue gives a general overview of probiotics, including common strains, safety, dosing, and current regulatory issues. Commonly studied conditions for probiotic use in children, namely acute infectious diarrhea, antibiotic-associated diarrhea, and eczema (atopic dermatitis), will be discussed in detail. The community healthcare provider is uniquely positioned to help consumers sort out the facts and misconceptions about probiotics, so they can make informed choices.
Publication Date: 12/18/2012
Expiration Date: 12/18/2015
CE Credit: 1.5 (0.15 CEU)
Type of Activity: Knowledge-based
This program was developed by The Rx Consultant and published by Continuing Education Network, Inc.
The Rx Consultant accepts no advertising or financial support from the pharmaceutical industry and
is funded solely by the purchase of programs. The Rx Consultant is dedicated to providing unbiased,
balanced information to health care practitioners.
Programs developed by The Rx Consultant are written by health care providers with expertise in the topic
area, peer-reviewed, extensively edited, and fact-checked. This development process was created to insure
that every program presents information that is current, accurate, relevant to "real world" health care
providers, and written in an easy reading, "plain English" style.
Brooke L. Honey, PharmD, BCPS, AE-C, Bob John, PharmD, BCPS,
Tracy Farnen, PharmD and Pamela Mausner, MD
Dr. Honey, Dr. John, Dr. Farnen and Dr. Mausner report no financial or personal relationship with any commercial
interest producing, marketing, reselling, or distributing a product or service that appears in this issue.
This accredited program is targeted to pharmacists and nurses.
Goals & Objectives
At the conclusion of this program, participants will be able to:
1. Define probiotic, and describe how probiotics differ from prebiotics, synbiotics, and live active cultures. Describe at least 2 mechanisms by which probiotics may act.
2. Name at least 3 widely used probiotic species. Discuss the importance of the specific strain to probiotic effects.
3. Discuss the evidence for probiotic use in the prevention and treatment of acute infectious diarrhea, antibiotic-associated diarrhea, C. difficile infection, and eczema in children.
The Rx Consultant is a publication of Continuing Education Network, Inc.
Continuing Education Network, Inc. is accredited by the Accreditation Council for Pharmacy Education as a provider of continuing pharmacy education as a
provider of continuing pharmacy education.
Continuing Education Network is approved by the California Board of Registered Nursing, Provider Number CEP 13118. Programs approved by CA BRN are accepted by most State Boards of Nursing.
ACPE Universal Activity Number: 0428-0000-13-001-H01-P
Exam & Credit Statement Procedures
Upon successful completion of this program and the post test (70%), 1.5 hours of continuing education credit will be awarded. To receive credit and your exam score, please complete the exam questions and
Editorial and Review Board
Chief Editor and CE Administrator
Terry M. Baker, PharmD
Tracy Farnen, PharmD
James Chan, PharmD, PhD
Pharmacy Quality and Outcomes Coordinator
Associate Clinical Professor
School of Pharmacy
University of California San Francisco
San Francisco, CA
Richard Ron Finley, B.S. Pharm.,R.Ph.
Clinical Pharmacist (volunteer faculty)
University of California, San Francisco (UCSF) Memory and Aging Center
Lecturer (Emeritus) UCSF, Department of Clinical Pharmacy
Health Sciences Clinical Professor, UCSF School of Pharmacy
San Francisco, CA
Ray Dolby Brain Health Center, Sutter Health/CPMC
San Francisco, CA
Consult Pharmacist Aging and Adult Health Services
San Francisco Health Department
San Francisco, CA
Julio R. Lopez, PharmD, FCSHP
Chief of Pharmacy Service
VA Northern California Health Care System
Adjunct Clinical Professor
College of Pharmacy
Assistant Clinical Professor
School of Pharmacy
University of California, San Francisco
San Francisco, CA Adjunct Professor
Thomas J. Long School of Pharmacy
University of the Pacific
Visiting Associate Professor and Lecturer
Samuel Merritt University
Pamela Mausner, MD
Helen Berlie, Pharm.D. CDE, BCACP
Clinical Assistant Professor, Pharmacy Practice
Wayne State University
Ambulatory Care Specialist - Diabetes
Health Centers Detroit Medical Group
Senior Editorial Advisor
Gerard Hatheway, PharmD, PhD
Belinda M. Danielson, RPh
Christopher M. DeSoto, PharmD
Angie S. Graham, PharmD
Cynthia Chan Huang, PharmD, MBA
Fred Plageman, PharmD
Editorial Advisor and Clinical Practice Consultant for Nurse Practitioners
Meuleman, RN, C, MS
About the Rx Consultant
The Rx Consultant is a monthly publication dedicated to providing health care professionals with the information they need to
educate patients about drugs and manage drug therapy. The reader is responsible for confirming
the information presented here and interpreting it in relation to each patient's specific situation before utilizing the information.
Any hardware that supports Microsoft Windows, Apple Mac OS, iOS, or Android, and meets the software requirements.
Browser that supports TLS 1.1 + and PDF files.
This includes Microsoft Internet Explorer 11, Google Chrome 38, Google Android OS 5.0 Browser, Apple Safari (version 7 for desktop, 5 for mobile), Mozilla Firefox 27, newer versions of these browsers, as well as some earlier versions that may require additional configuration.
Adobe Acrobat Reader is recommended, and is required for some browsers.
Note: TLS 1.1 and 1.2 support is required for browser security. Click here for TLS browser support details.
Required. Broadband recommended. (T1, DSL, Cable, G4 or higher.)